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GREEK EDUCATION                          39

good nor bad.   The followers of Plato divided the soul into a
rational and an irrational part, and called the one good and the
other bad.   But Aristotle is not prepared to make any such sharp
distinction.   In one respect they are irrational, and yet not so
completely irrational that they cannot be made rational when
brought under the control of the intellect.   Consequently good-
ness or badness does not depend on the appetites themselves but
on the training they get—in other words, on the habits that are
formed during this second period of education.   In the absence
of right training the soul is apt to be led astray by the pleasure or
the pain that accompanies the satisfaction or the thwarting of
appetite.    " Goodness of character has to do with pleasures
and pains.   It is pleasure that makes us do what is bad, and
pain that makes us abstain from what is right.    That is why we
require to be trained from our earliest youth, as Plato puts it, to
feel pleasure and pain at the right things.   True education is just


For this training in right habits of mental choice, Aristotle
looks mainly to music (in our sense of the term).   Music has
various functions:  it serves to provide recreation, it supplies
occupation for cultured leisure, it disciplines the mind.   But in
education its main function is the last of these.   Since goodness
depends on feeling pleasure and pain at the right things, there is
no better way to make the mind love what is noble and hate what
is base than to get it rightly attuned to the strains of good music*
4 * It is in rhythms and melodies that we find likenesses of anger
and gentleness that approach most nearly to the real things, and
so with courage and temperance and qualities of soul generally.
Facts prove it; for we are altered in souUs we listen to them/*
After giving examples, he adds: " All this proves that music jis
able to modify the character of the soul; and if it has this power
we must certainly use it in educating the young."t

Aristotle then proceeds to raise various practical questions
about this musical training: whether, for example, children are
to learn by singing and playing themselves, or from listening to
others; what instruments are to be allowed; what kind of
melodies are beat, In the midst of this discussion, in which the
views expressed are in the main those commonly held by cultured
Greeks of his time, the Politics comes to an end unfinished*
* Ahfar, iii 3*           t ftfitfct, viii, 5*